Author Archives: Jeffrey Green

Diagnosing Personality Disorders

Identifying Personality Conditions

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Characteristic are enduring, usually rigid patterns of habits, reasoning (cognition), as well as emoting shared in a range of situations as well as circumstances and throughout one’s life (normally from early teenage years forward). Some personality type are damaging to both oneself and also to others. These are the useless qualities. Frequently they trigger pain and the individual bearing these traits is unhappy and also self-critical. This is called ego-dystony. At other times, even one of the most destructive personality traits are gladly recommended or even shown off by the client. This is called “ego-syntony”.

The Diagnostic as well as Statistical Handbook (DSM) explains 12 ideal “models” of personality problems. It offers checklists of 7 to nine characteristic per each problem. These are called “analysis requirements”. Whenever five of these requirements are fulfilled, a qualified psychological wellness diagnostician can safely detect the existence of a character disorder.

But important caveats use.

No 2 individuals are alike. Even topics struggling with the exact same individuality problem can be worlds apart regarding their histories, actual conduct, internal world, character, social interactions, and character go.

Diagnosing the presence of a personality type (applying the diagnostic criteria) is an art, not a scientific research. Examining someone’s conduct, evaluating the person’s cognitive and also psychological landscape, and also connecting motivation to her or him, is a matter of judgment. There is no calibrated clinical instrument that can supply us with an objective reading of whether one lacks empathy, is deceitful, is sexualizing circumstances as well as people, or is clinging and also needy.

Unfortunately, the procedure is certainly polluted by valuation also. Mental health and wellness professionals are just human (well, OK, some of them are …:o-RRB-). They hail from certain social, economic, and social backgrounds. They do their ideal to neutralize their individual bias and also prejudices however their efforts usually fail. Lots of critics bill that certain individuality problems are “culture-bound”. They mirror our modern sensitivities as well as values as opposed to invariable emotional entities and also constructs.

Hence, someone with the Antisocial Character Disorder is expected to disrespect social policies and also regard himself as a free agent. He lacks conscience and also is commonly a criminal. This suggests that non-conformists, skeptics, and also dissidents could be pathologized and also classified “antisocial”. Without a doubt, tyrannical programs commonly jail their challengers in mental asylums based upon such suspicious “diagnoses”. Additionally, crime is a career choice. Given, it is a damaging and also unpalatable one. Yet given that when is one’s option of vocation a psychological health issue?

If you believe in telepathy as well as UFOs and have bizarre rituals, quirks, and also speech patterns, you may be identified with the Schizotypal Personality Problem. If you avoid others and also are a loner, you could be a Schizoid. And also the list takes place.

To prevent these risks, the DSM came up with a multi-axial design of individuality examination.

Overview of Mental Health Counseling

Review of Mental Health and wellness Counseling

Mental wellness counseling or scientific therapy is a technique in psychology that helps soothe mental problems or distress by promoting individual development. It also techniques psychiatric therapy, assessment, forensic examination particularly forensic statement, formulation, application and examination of strategies as well as solutions for therapy of mental dysfunction and also study. Because of the nature of this area, it is typically checked as a psychological health and wellness career.

Mental health and wellness counseling has its roots from the later component of 19th century. And as the area of psychology grew, branches started to create, amongst them is counseling psychology as well as clinical counseling- both work in psychological health assessment as well as therapy.

While carefully connected with scientific psychology, there are still marked distinctions in between both methods.

For one, counseling psychology is utilized by psychotherapist as well as therapists in order to help individuals with milder psychopathological worries. On the other hand, clinical therapy take care of more serious and cutting-edge kinds of mental disorders such as schizophrenia as well as psychosomatic conditions. Examples of problems that might be dealt with by counseling psychology are the stress-related conditions. Essentially, these are just minor psychological health disease that requires little (if there is any kind of) clinical treatments.

This technique attempts to resolve small psychological issues and also take advantage of therapy methods. This is feasible since clients subjected under this method are still in control of their mind. As an example, individuals who are distressed because of bothersome scenarios can look for the experts who might provide therapy psychology.

Counseling psychology concentrates much more on the individual malfunctions of the person that hinder his psychological wellness. It assists him solve issues using non-directive techniques, as a result a counseling psycho therapist would just open up alternatives that will certainly assist solve the malfunction without being suggestive or authoritative. Also, counseling psychology is much more concentrated on logical thinking as opposed to unconscious performance.

2nd distinction is that therapy psychology sticks to humanistic or person-centered technique. Third, it has a various sight on the developmental problems related to mental illness.

On the various other hand, clinical psychology offers more on extreme mental disorders such as medical manic depression like unipolar and also bipolar illness, sexual dysfunctions such as exhibitionism, fetishism and sadism, fears, injuries and substance-abuse or dependence.

Due to a much more extensive and extensive nature of this field, clinical therapy utilizes psychological assessment tools that additionally confirm the signs and symptoms of disorders among people with interrupted psychological health and wellness. Mental health and wellness analysis is a tool for reviewing symptoms that a person provides. This gives understandings to psychological health experts that will assist them in the preparation, administration and analysis of treatment techniques that are apt to the mental wellness needs of a client. The process of evaluation calls for making use of interviews, physical exams and clinical observations. Also, assessment tools such as knowledge, signs questionnaires, character as well as neuropsychological examinations are extensively used. All these contribute dramatically to the diagnostic impacts that will be created after all information are gathered as well as studied.

Despite of these differences, counseling psychology and also professional counseling are proven to be very efficient as mental health and wellness therapy methods. Both supporters the use of talk therapy that can either assist resolve the issue for the mental health client or open up indicators that might be explained as causes of the advancement of the disorder. Basically, both sorts of counseling make mental wellness therapy and recuperation possible.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder – Prevalence and Comorbidity

Narcissistic Character Problem – Frequency and Comorbidity

Exactly what is the Distinction between Healthy Narcissism as well as the Pathological Kind?
In my publication “Malignant Self Love – Narcissism Revisited”, I specify pathological narcissism as:

“( A) life-long pattern of qualities and also habits which indicate infatuation and also fixation with one’s self to the exemption of all others as well as the egotistic and ruthless interest of one’s satisfaction, dominance and passion.”

Luckily for us, we are all narcissists to some extent. Yet healthy narcissism is adaptive, adaptable, empathic, creates elation and also pleasure (happiness), and help us to function. Pathological vanity is maladaptive, inflexible, persisting, and creates substantial distress, and practical impairment.

Prevalence and also Age and Sex Attributes

According to the DSM IV-TR, Egotistical Personality Disorder (NPD) is diagnosed in between 2% and 16% of the population in professional settings (between 0.5-1% of the basic population). The DSM-IV-TR proceeds to tell us that a lot of narcissists (50-75% of all individuals) are guys.

We should meticulously compare the narcissistic characteristics of teens – vanity is an indispensable component of their healthy and balanced personal advancement – and also the full-fledge condition. Teenage years is about self-definition, differentiation, splitting up from one’s parents, as well as individuation. These inevitably involve conceited assertiveness which is not to be conflated or confused with Narcissistic Character Disorder (NPD).

” The life time prevalence price of NPD is approximately 0.5-1 percent; nonetheless, the estimated occurrence in scientific settings is roughly 2-16 percent. Practically 75 percent of people diagnosed with NPD are male (APA, DSM IV-TR 2000).”.

From the Abstract of Psychotherapeutic Evaluation as well as Treatment of Conceited Personality Disorder By Robert C. Schwartz, Ph.D., DAPA as well as Shannon D. Smith, Ph.D., DAPA (American Psychotherapy Organization, Write-up # 3004 Annals July/August 2002).

Nonetheless, as the narcissist ages as well as endures the unpreventable attendant physical, psychological, as well as work limitations, Egotistical Personality Problem (NPD) is exacerbated.

Researches have not demonstrated any ethnic, social, cultural, financial, hereditary, or expert proneness or vulnerability to the Conceited Personality Problem (NPD).

Still, Robert Milman recommended a problem that he classified “Gotten Situational Narcissism”. He observed a short-term as well as reactive type of the Egotistical Personality Problem (NPD) in particular scenarios, such as under continuous public analysis and also exposure.

Comorbidity and also Differential Medical diagnoses.

Conceited Individuality Disorder (NPD) is commonly detected with various other mental health and wellness conditions (” co-morbidity”), such as state of mind conditions, eating disorders, and substance-related disorders. Individuals with Conceited Character Disorder (NPD) are frequently abusive and vulnerable to spontaneous and reckless practices (” twin medical diagnosis”).

The comorbidity of Egotistical Individuality Condition (NPD) with various other individuality disorders, such as the Histrionic, Borderline, Paranoid, as well as Antisocial Character Disorders, is high.

Conceited Individuality Disorder (NPD) is frequently misdiagnosed as Bipolar Disorder (the manic phase), Asperger’s Condition, or Generalized Anxiety Disorder – and the other way around.

Though the individual styles of people with Collection B character problems appear like each various other, they also considerably vary. The narcissist is magnificent, the histrionic coquettish, the antisocial (psychopath) callous, as well as the borderline desperate.

From my book, “Deadly Self Love – Narcissism Revisited”:.

” As opposed to clients with the Borderline Personality Disorder, the self-image of the narcissist is steady, he or she are less impulsive as well as much less self-defeating or self-destructive and less worried with abandonment issues (not as clinging).

As opposed to the histrionic patient, the narcissist is achievements-orientated and proud of his or her ownerships as well as success. Narcissists also rarely show their feelings as histrionics do as well as they hold the level of sensitivities and requirements of others in contempt.

According to the DSM-IV-TR, both narcissists and also psychotics are “tough-minded, glib, surface, exploitative, and also unempathic”. However narcissists are much less impulsive, much less aggressive, and less dishonest. Psychos rarely look for egotistical supply. In contrast to psychos, few narcissists are wrongdoers.

Individuals dealing with the array of obsessive-compulsive disorders are devoted to perfection and also believe that only they are capable of attaining it. Yet, instead of narcissists, they are self-critical and much more knowledgeable about their very own shortages, defects, and imperfections.”.


Goldman, Howard H., Evaluation of General Psychiatry, fourth edition, 1995. Prentice-Hall International, London.

Gelder, Michael, Gath, Dennis, Mayou, Richard, Cowen, Philip (eds.), Oxford Book of Psychiatry, third version, 1996, reprinted 2000. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Vaknin, Sam, Deadly Self Love – Narcissism Revisited, seventh revised impact, 1999-2006. Narcissus Publications, Prague and Skopje.